lithium\action\Request

class

A Request object is passed into the Dispatcher, and is responsible for identifying and storing all the information about an HTTP request made to an application, including status, headers, and any GET, POST or PUT data, as well as any data returned from the Router, after the Request object has been matched against a Route. Includes a property accessor method (__get()) which allows any parameters returned from routing to be accessed as properties of the Request object.

Source

class Request extends \lithium\net\http\Request {

	/**
	 * Current url of request.
	 *
	 * @var string
	 */
	public $url = null;

	/**
	 * Params for request.
	 *
	 * @var array
	 */
	public $params = [];

	/**
	 * Route parameters that should persist when generating URLs in this request context.
	 *
	 * @var array
	 */
	public $persist = [];

	/**
	 * Data found in the HTTP request body, most often populated by `$_POST` and `$_FILES`.
	 *
	 * @var array
	 */
	public $data = [];

	/**
	 * Key/value pairs found encoded in the request URL after '?', populated by `$_GET`.
	 *
	 * @var array
	 */
	public $query = [];

	/**
	 * Base path.
	 *
	 * @var string
	 */
	protected $_base = null;

	/**
	 * Computed environment variables for the request. Retrieved with env().
	 *
	 * @var array
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::env()
	 */
	protected $_computed = [];

	/**
	 * Holds the server globals & environment variables.
	 *
	 * @var array
	 */
	protected $_env = [];

	/**
	 * If POST, PUT or PATCH data is coming from an input stream (rather than `$_POST`),
	 * this specified where to read it from.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::_init()
	 * @var resource
	 */
	protected $_stream = null;

	/**
	 * Options used to detect features of the request, using `is()`. For example:
	 *
	 * ``` embed:lithium\tests\cases\action\RequestTest::testRequestTypeIsMobile(4-4) ```
	 *
	 * Custom detectors can be added using `detect()`.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::is()
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::detect()
	 * @var array
	 */
	protected $_detectors = [
		'mobile'  => ['HTTP_USER_AGENT', null],
		'ajax'    => ['HTTP_X_REQUESTED_WITH', 'XMLHttpRequest'],
		'flash'   => ['HTTP_USER_AGENT', 'Shockwave Flash'],
		'ssl'     => 'HTTPS',
		'dnt'     => ['HTTP_DNT', '1'],
		'get'     => ['REQUEST_METHOD', 'GET'],
		'post'    => ['REQUEST_METHOD', 'POST'],
		'patch'   => ['REQUEST_METHOD', 'PATCH'],
		'put'     => ['REQUEST_METHOD', 'PUT'],
		'delete'  => ['REQUEST_METHOD', 'DELETE'],
		'head'    => ['REQUEST_METHOD', 'HEAD'],
		'options' => ['REQUEST_METHOD', 'OPTIONS']
	];

	/**
	 * Auto configuration properties.
	 *
	 * @var array
	 */
	protected $_autoConfig = [
		'classes' => 'merge', 'detectors' => 'merge', 'type', 'stream'
	];

	/**
	 * Contains an array of content-types, sorted by quality (the priority which the browser
	 * requests each type).
	 *
	 * @var array
	 */
	protected $_accept = [];

	/**
	 * Holds the value of the current locale, set through the `locale()` method.
	 *
	 * @var string
	 */
	protected $_locale = null;

	/**
	 * Constructor. Adds config values to the public properties when a new object is created,
	 * pulling request data from superglobals if `globals` is set to `true`.
	 *
	 * Normalizes casing of request headers.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\net\http\Request::__construct()
	 * @see lithium\net\http\Message::__construct()
	 * @see lithium\net\Message::__construct()
	 * @param array $config The available configuration options are the following. Further
	 *        options are inherited from the parent classes.
	 *        - `'base'` _string_: Defaults to `null`.
	 *        - `'url'` _string_: Defaults to `null`.
	 *        - `'data'` _array_: Additional data to use when initializing
	 *          the request. Defaults to `array()`.
	 *        - `'stream'` _resource_: Stream to read from in order to get the message
	 *          body when method is POST, PUT or PATCH and data is empty. When not provided
	 *          `php://input` will be used for reading.
	 *        - `'env'` _array_: Defaults to `array()`.
	 *        - `'globals'` _boolean_: Use global variables for populating
	 *          the request's environment and data; defaults to `true`.
	 *        - `'drain'` _boolean_: Enables/disables automatic reading of streams.
	 *          Defaults to `true`. Disable when you're dealing with large binary
	 *          payloads. Note that this will also disable automatic content decoding
	 *          of stream data.
	 * @return void
	 */
	public function __construct(array $config = []) {
		$defaults = [
			'base' => null,
			'url' => null,
			'env' => [],
			'data' => [],
			'stream' => null,
			'globals' => true,
			'drain' => true,
			'query' => [],
			'headers' => []
		];
		$config += $defaults;

		if ($config['globals']) {
			if (isset($_SERVER)) {
				$config['env'] += $_SERVER;
			}
			if (isset($_ENV)) {
				$config['env'] += $_ENV;
			}
			if (isset($_GET)) {
				$config['query'] += $_GET;
			}
			if (isset($_POST)) {
				$config['data'] += $_POST;
			}
		}
		$this->_env = $config['env'];

		if (!isset($config['host'])) {
			$config['host'] = $this->env('HTTP_HOST');
		}
		if (!isset($config['protocol'])) {
			$config['protocol'] = $this->env('SERVER_PROTOCOL');
		}
		if ($config['protocol'] && strpos($config['protocol'], '/')) {
			list($scheme, $version) = explode('/', $config['protocol']);

			if (!isset($config['scheme'])) {
				$config['scheme'] = strtolower($scheme) . ($this->env('HTTPS') ? 's' : '');
			}
			if (!isset($config['version'])) {
				$config['version'] = $version;
			}
		}
		$this->_base = $this->_base($config['base']);
		$this->url = $this->_url($config['url']);

		$config['headers'] += [
			'Content-Type' => $this->env('CONTENT_TYPE'),
			'Content-Length' => $this->env('CONTENT_LENGTH')
		];

		foreach ($this->_env as $name => $value) {
			if ($name[0] === 'H' && strpos($name, 'HTTP_') === 0) {
				$name = str_replace('_', ' ', substr($name, 5));
				$name = str_replace(' ', '-', ucwords(strtolower($name)));
				$config['headers'] += [$name => $value];
			}
		}

		parent::__construct($config);
	}

	/**
	 * Initializes request object by setting up mobile detectors, determining method and
	 * populating the data property either by using i.e. form data or reading from STDIN in
	 * case binary data is streamed. Will merge any files posted in forms with parsed data.
	 *
	 * Note that only beginning with PHP 5.6 STDIN can be opened/read and closed more than once.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::_parseFiles()
	 */
	protected function _init() {
		parent::_init();

		$mobile = [
			'iPhone', 'MIDP', 'AvantGo', 'BlackBerry', 'J2ME', 'Opera Mini', 'DoCoMo', 'NetFront',
			'Nokia', 'PalmOS', 'PalmSource', 'portalmmm', 'Plucker', 'ReqwirelessWeb', 'iPod',
			'SonyEricsson', 'Symbian', 'UP\.Browser', 'Windows CE', 'Xiino', 'Android'
		];
		if (!empty($this->_config['detectors']['mobile'][1])) {
			$mobile = array_merge($mobile, (array) $this->_config['detectors']['mobile'][1]);
		}
		$this->_detectors['mobile'][1] = $mobile;

		$this->data = (array) $this->_config['data'];

		if (isset($this->data['_method'])) {
			$this->_computed['HTTP_X_HTTP_METHOD_OVERRIDE'] = strtoupper($this->data['_method']);
			unset($this->data['_method']);
		}
		$type = $this->type($this->_config['type'] ?: $this->env('CONTENT_TYPE'));
		$this->method = strtoupper($this->env('REQUEST_METHOD'));
		$hasBody = in_array($this->method, ['POST', 'PUT', 'PATCH']);

		if ($this->_config['drain'] && !$this->body && $hasBody && $type !== 'html') {
			$this->_stream = $this->_stream ?: fopen('php://input', 'r');
			$this->body = stream_get_contents($this->_stream);
			fclose($this->_stream);
		}
		if (!$this->data && $this->body) {
			$this->data = $this->body(null, ['decode' => true, 'encode' => false]);
		}
		$this->body = $this->data;

		if ($this->_config['globals'] && !empty($_FILES)) {
			$this->data = Set::merge($this->data, $this->_parseFiles($_FILES));
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Allows request parameters to be accessed as object properties, i.e. `$this->request->action`
	 * instead of `$this->request->params['action']`.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::$params
	 * @param string $name The property name/parameter key to return.
	 * @return mixed Returns the value of `$params[$name]` if it is set, otherwise returns null.
	 */
	public function __get($name) {
		if (isset($this->params[$name])) {
			return $this->params[$name];
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Allows request parameters to be checked using short-hand notation. See the `__get()` method
	 * for more details.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::__get()
	 * @param string $name The name of the request parameter to check.
	 * @return boolean Returns true if the key in `$name` is set in the `$params` array, otherwise
	 *         `false`.
	 */
	public function __isset($name) {
		return isset($this->params[$name]);
	}

	/**
	 * Queries PHP's environment settings, and provides an abstraction for standardizing expected
	 * environment values across varying platforms, as well as specify custom environment flags.
	 *
	 * Defines an artificial `'PLATFORM'` environment variable as either `'IIS'`, `'CGI'`
	 * or `null` to allow checking for the SAPI in a normalized way.
	 *
	 * @param string $key The environment variable required.
	 * @return string The requested variables value.
	 * @todo Refactor to lazy-load environment settings
	 */
	public function env($key) {
		if (array_key_exists($key, $this->_computed)) {
			return $this->_computed[$key];
		}
		$val = null;

		if (!empty($this->_env[$key])) {
			$val = $this->_env[$key];
			if ($key !== 'REMOTE_ADDR' && $key !== 'HTTPS' && $key !== 'REQUEST_METHOD') {
				return $this->_computed[$key] = $val;
			}
		}
		switch ($key) {
			case 'BASE':
			case 'base':
				$val = $this->_base($this->_config['base']);
			break;
			case 'HTTP_HOST':
				$val = 'localhost';
			break;
			case 'SERVER_PROTOCOL':
				$val = 'HTTP/1.1';
			break;
			case 'REQUEST_METHOD':
				if ($this->env('HTTP_X_HTTP_METHOD_OVERRIDE')) {
					$val = $this->env('HTTP_X_HTTP_METHOD_OVERRIDE');
				} elseif (isset($this->_env['REQUEST_METHOD'])) {
					$val = $this->_env['REQUEST_METHOD'];
				} else {
					$val = 'GET';
				}
			break;
			case 'CONTENT_TYPE':
				$val = 'text/html';
			break;
			case 'PLATFORM':
				$envs = ['isapi' => 'IIS', 'cgi' => 'CGI', 'cgi-fcgi' => 'CGI'];
				$val = isset($envs[PHP_SAPI]) ? $envs[PHP_SAPI] : null;
			break;
			case 'REMOTE_ADDR':
				$https = [
					'HTTP_X_FORWARDED_FOR',
					'HTTP_PC_REMOTE_ADDR',
					'HTTP_X_REAL_IP'
				];
				foreach ($https as $altKey) {
					if ($addr = $this->env($altKey)) {
						list($val) = explode(', ', $addr);
						break;
					}
				}
			break;
			case 'SCRIPT_NAME':
				if ($this->env('PLATFORM') === 'CGI') {
					return $this->env('SCRIPT_URL');
				}
				$val = null;
			break;
			case 'HTTPS':
				if (isset($this->_env['SCRIPT_URI'])) {
					$val = strpos($this->_env['SCRIPT_URI'], 'https://') === 0;
				} elseif (isset($this->_env['HTTPS'])) {
					$val = (!empty($this->_env['HTTPS']) && $this->_env['HTTPS'] !== 'off');
				} else {
					$val = false;
				}
			break;
			case 'SERVER_ADDR':
				if (empty($this->_env['SERVER_ADDR']) && !empty($this->_env['LOCAL_ADDR'])) {
					$val = $this->_env['LOCAL_ADDR'];
				} elseif (isset($this->_env['SERVER_ADDR'])) {
					$val = $this->_env['SERVER_ADDR'];
				}
			break;
			case 'SCRIPT_FILENAME':
				if ($this->env('PLATFORM') === 'IIS') {
					$val = str_replace('\\\\', '\\', $this->env('PATH_TRANSLATED'));
				} elseif (isset($this->_env['DOCUMENT_ROOT']) && isset($this->_env['PHP_SELF'])) {
					$val = $this->_env['DOCUMENT_ROOT'] . $this->_env['PHP_SELF'];
				}
			break;
			case 'DOCUMENT_ROOT':
				$fileName = $this->env('SCRIPT_FILENAME');
				$offset = (!strpos($this->env('SCRIPT_NAME'), '.php')) ? 4 : 0;
				$offset = strlen($fileName) - (strlen($this->env('SCRIPT_NAME')) + $offset);
				$val = substr($fileName, 0, $offset);
			break;
			case 'PHP_SELF':
				$val = '/';
			break;
			case 'CGI':
			case 'CGI_MODE':
				$val = $this->env('PLATFORM') === 'CGI';
			break;
			case 'HTTP_BASE':
				$val = preg_replace('/^([^.])*/i', null, $this->env('HTTP_HOST'));
			break;
			case 'PHP_AUTH_USER':
			case 'PHP_AUTH_PW':
			case 'PHP_AUTH_DIGEST':
				if (!$header = $this->env('HTTP_AUTHORIZATION')) {
					if (!$header = $this->env('REDIRECT_HTTP_AUTHORIZATION')) {
						return $this->_computed[$key] = $val;
					}
				}
				if (stripos($header, 'basic') === 0) {
					$decoded = base64_decode(substr($header, strlen('basic ')));

					if (strpos($decoded, ':') !== false) {
						list($user, $password) = explode(':', $decoded, 2);

						$this->_computed['PHP_AUTH_USER'] = $user;
						$this->_computed['PHP_AUTH_PW'] = $password;
						return $this->_computed[$key];
					}
				} elseif (stripos($header, 'digest') === 0) {
					return $this->_computed[$key] = substr($header, strlen('digest '));
				}
			default:
				$val = array_key_exists($key, $this->_env) ? $this->_env[$key] : $val;
			break;
		}
		return $this->_computed[$key] = $val;
	}

	/**
	 * Returns information about the type of content that the client is requesting.
	 *
	 * This method may work different then you might think. This is a _convenience_ method
	 * working exclusively with short type names it knows about. Only those types will be
	 * matched. You can tell this method about more types via `Media::type()`.
	 *
	 * Note: In case negotiation fails, `'html'` is used as a fallback type.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\net\http\Media::negotiate()
	 * @param boolean|string $type Optionally a type name i.e. `'json'` or `true`.
	 *        1. If not specified, returns the media type name that the client prefers, using
	 *           a potentially set `type` param, then content negotiation and that fails,
	 *           ultimately falling back and returning the string `'html'`.
	 *        2. If a media type name (string) is passed, returns `true` or `false`, indicating
	 *           whether or not that type is accepted by the client at all.
	 *        3. If `true`, returns the raw content types from the `Accept` header, parsed into
	 *           an array and sorted by client preference.
	 * @return string|boolean|array Returns a type name (i.e. 'json'`) or a
	 *         boolean or an array, depending on the value of `$type`.
	 */
	public function accepts($type = null) {
		$media = $this->_classes['media'];

		if ($type === true) {
			return $this->_accept ?: ($this->_accept = $this->_parseAccept());
		}
		if ($type) {
			return ($media::negotiate($this) ?: 'html') === $type;
		}
		if (isset($this->params['type'])) {
			return $this->params['type'];
		}
		return $media::negotiate($this) ?: 'html';
	}

	/**
	 * Parses the `HTTP_ACCEPT` information the requesting client sends, and converts
	 * that data to an array for consumption by the rest of the framework.
	 *
	 * @return array All the types of content the client can accept.
	 */
	protected function _parseAccept() {
		$accept = $this->env('HTTP_ACCEPT');
		$accept = (preg_match('/[a-z,-]/i', $accept)) ? explode(',', $accept) : ['text/html'];

		foreach (array_reverse($accept) as $i => $type) {
			unset($accept[$i]);
			list($type, $q) = (explode(';q=', $type, 2) + [$type, 1.0 + $i / 100]);
			$accept[$type] = ($type === '*/*') ? 0.1 : floatval($q);
		}
		arsort($accept, SORT_NUMERIC);

		if (isset($accept['application/xhtml+xml']) && $accept['application/xhtml+xml'] >= 1) {
			unset($accept['application/xml']);
		}
		$media = $this->_classes['media'];

		if (isset($this->params['type']) && ($handler = $media::type($this->params['type']))) {
			if (isset($handler['content'])) {
				$type = (array) $handler['content'];
				$accept = [current($type) => 1] + $accept;
			}
		}
		return array_keys($accept);
	}

	/**
	 * This method allows easy extraction of any request data using a prefixed key syntax. By
	 * passing keys in the form of `'prefix:key'`, it is possible to query different information of
	 * various different types, including GET and POST data, and server environment variables. The
	 * full list of prefixes is as follows:
	 *
	 * - `'data'`: Retrieves values from POST data.
	 * - `'params'`: Retrieves query parameters returned from the routing system.
	 * - `'query'`: Retrieves values from GET data.
	 * - `'env'`: Retrieves values from the server or environment, such as `'env:https'`, or custom
	 *   environment values, like `'env:base'`. See the `env()` method for more info.
	 * - `'http'`: Retrieves header values (i.e. `'http:accept'`), or the HTTP request method (i.e.
	 *   `'http:method'`).
	 *
	 * This method is used in several different places in the framework in order to provide the
	 * ability to act conditionally on different aspects of the request. See `Media::type()` (the
	 * section on content negotiation) and the routing system for more information.
	 *
	 *  _Note_: All keys should be _lower-cased_, even when getting HTTP headers.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::env()
	 * @see lithium\net\http\Media::type()
	 * @see lithium\net\http\Router
	 * @param string $key A prefixed key indicating what part of the request data the requested
	 *        value should come from, and the name of the value to retrieve, in lower case.
	 * @return string Returns the value of a GET, POST, routing or environment variable, or an
	 *         HTTP header or method name.
	 */
	public function get($key) {
		list($var, $key) = explode(':', $key);

		switch (true) {
			case in_array($var, ['params', 'data', 'query']):
				return isset($this->{$var}[$key]) ? $this->{$var}[$key] : null;
			case ($var === 'env'):
				return $this->env(strtoupper($key));
			case ($var === 'http' && $key === 'method'):
				return $this->env('REQUEST_METHOD');
			case ($var === 'http'):
				return $this->env('HTTP_' . strtoupper($key));
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Provides a simple syntax for making assertions about the properties of a request.
	 * By default, the `Request` object is configured with several different types of assertions,
	 * which are individually known as _detectors_. Detectors are invoked by calling the `is()` and
	 * passing the name of the detector flag, i.e. `$request->is('<name>')`, which returns `true` or
	 * `false`, depending on whether or not the the properties (usually headers or data) contained
	 * in the request match the detector. The default detectors include the following:
	 *
	 * - `'mobile'`: Uses a regular expression to match common mobile browser user agents.
	 * - `'ajax'`: Checks to see if the `X-Requested-With` header is present, and matches the value
	 *    `'XMLHttpRequest'`.
	 * - `'flash'`: Checks to see if the user agent is `'Shockwave Flash'`.
	 * - `'ssl'`: Verifies that the request is SSL-secured.
	 * - `'get'` / `'post'` / `'put'` / `'delete'` / `'head'` / `'options'`: Checks that the HTTP
	 *   request method matches the one specified.
	 *
	 * In addition to the above, this method also accepts media type names (see `Media::type()`) to
	 * make assertions against the format of the request body (for POST or PUT requests), i.e.
	 * `$request->is('json')`. This will return `true` if the client has made a POST request with
	 * JSON data.
	 *
	 * For information about adding custom detectors or overriding the ones in the core, see the
	 * `detect()` method.
	 *
	 * While these detectors are useful in controllers or other similar contexts, they're also
	 * useful when performing _content negotiation_, which is the process of modifying the response
	 * format to suit the client (see the `'conditions'` field of the `$options` parameter in
	 * `Media::type()`).
	 *
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::detect()
	 * @see lithium\net\http\Media::type()
	 * @param string $flag The name of the flag to check, which should be the name of a valid
	 *        detector (that is either built-in or defined with `detect()`).
	 * @return boolean Returns `true` if the detector check succeeds (see the details for the
	 *         built-in detectors above, or `detect()`), otherwise `false`.
	 */
	public function is($flag) {
		$media = $this->_classes['media'];

		if (!isset($this->_detectors[$flag])) {
			if (!in_array($flag, $media::types())) {
				return false;
			}
			return $this->type() === $flag;
		}
		$detector = $this->_detectors[$flag];

		if (!is_array($detector) && is_callable($detector)) {
			return $detector($this);
		}
		if (!is_array($detector)) {
			return (boolean) $this->env($detector);
		}
		list($key, $check) = $detector + ['', ''];

		if (is_array($check)) {
			$check = '/' . join('|', $check) . '/i';
		}
		if (Validator::isRegex($check)) {
			return (boolean) preg_match($check, $this->env($key));
		}
		return ($this->env($key) === $check);
	}

	/**
	 * Sets/Gets the content type. If `'type'` is null, the method will attempt to determine the
	 * type from the params, then from the environment setting
	 *
	 * @param string $type a full content type i.e. `'application/json'` or simple name `'json'`
	 * @return string A simple content type name, i.e. `'html'`, `'xml'`, `'json'`, etc., depending
	 *         on the content type of the request.
	 */
	public function type($type = null) {
		if (!$type && !empty($this->params['type'])) {
			$type = $this->params['type'];
		}
		return parent::type($type);
	}

	/**
	 * Creates a _detector_ used with `Request::is()`.  A detector is a boolean check that is
	 * created to determine something about a request.
	 *
	 * A detector check can be either an exact string match or a regular expression match against a
	 * header or environment variable. A detector check can also be a closure that accepts the
	 * `Request` object instance as a parameter.
	 *
	 * For example, to detect whether a request is from an iPhone, you can do the following:
	 * ``` embed:lithium\tests\cases\action\RequestTest::testDetect(11-12) ```
	 *
	 * @see lithium\action\Request::is()
	 * @param string $flag The name of the detector check. Used in subsequent calls to `Request::is()`.
	 * @param mixed $detector Detectors can be specified in four different ways:
	 *        - The name of an HTTP header or environment variable. If a string, calling the detector
	 *          will check that the header or environment variable exists and is set to a non-empty
	 *          value.
	 *        - A two-element array containing a header/environment variable name, and a value to match
	 *          against. The second element of the array must be an exact match to the header or
	 *          variable value.
	 *        - A two-element array containing a header/environment variable name, and a regular
	 *          expression that matches against the value, as in the example above.
	 *        - A closure which accepts an instance of the `Request` object and returns a boolean
	 *          value.
	 * @return void
	 */
	public function detect($flag, $detector = null) {
		if (is_array($flag)) {
			$this->_detectors = $flag + $this->_detectors;
		} else {
			$this->_detectors[$flag] = $detector;
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Gets the referring URL of this request.
	 *
	 * @param string $default Default URL to use if HTTP_REFERER cannot be read from headers.
	 * @param boolean $local If true, restrict referring URLs to local server.
	 * @return string Referring URL.
	 */
	public function referer($default = null, $local = false) {
		if ($ref = $this->env('HTTP_REFERER')) {
			if (!$local) {
				return $ref;
			}
			$url = parse_url($ref) + ['path' => ''];
			if (empty($url['host']) || $url['host'] === $this->env('HTTP_HOST')) {
				$ref = $url['path'];
				if (!empty($url['query'])) {
					$ref .= '?' . $url['query'];
				}
				if (!empty($url['fragment'])) {
					$ref .= '#' . $url['fragment'];
				}
				return $ref;
			}
		}
		return ($default !== null) ? $default : '/';
	}

	/**
	 * Overrides `lithium\net\http\Request::to()` to provide the correct options for generating
	 * URLs. For information about this method, see the parent implementation.
	 *
	 * @see lithium\net\http\Request::to()
	 * @param string $format The format to convert to.
	 * @param array $options Override options.
	 * @return mixed The return value type depends on `$format`.
	 */
	public function to($format, array $options = []) {
		$defaults = [
			'path' => $this->env('base') . '/' . $this->url
		];
		return parent::to($format, $options + $defaults);
	}

	/**
	 * Sets or returns the current locale string. For more information, see
	 * "[Globalization](http://li3.me/docs/book/manual/1.x/common-tasks/globalization)" in the manual.
	 *
	 * @param string $locale An optional locale string like `'en'`, `'en_US'` or `'de_DE'`. If
	 *        specified, will overwrite the existing locale.
	 * @return string Returns the currently set locale string.
	 */
	public function locale($locale = null) {
		if ($locale) {
			$this->_locale = $locale;
		}
		if ($this->_locale) {
			return $this->_locale;
		}
		if (isset($this->params['locale'])) {
			return $this->params['locale'];
		}
	}

	/**
	 * Find the base path of the current request.
	 *
	 * @param string $base The base path. If `null`, `'PHP_SELF'` will be used instead.
	 * @return string
	 */
	protected function _base($base = null) {
		if ($base === null) {
			$base = preg_replace('/[^\/]+$/', '', $this->env('PHP_SELF'));
		}
		$base = trim(str_replace(["/app/webroot", '/webroot'], '', $base), '/');
		return $base ? '/' . $base : '';
	}

	/**
	 * Extract the url from `REQUEST_URI` && `PHP_SELF` environment variables.
	 *
	 * @param  string The base url If `null`, environment variables will be used instead.
	 * @return string
	 */
	protected function _url($url = null) {
		if ($url !== null) {
			return '/' . trim($url, '/');
		} elseif ($uri = $this->env('REQUEST_URI')) {
			list($uri) = explode('?', $uri, 2);
			$base = '/^' . preg_quote($this->_base, '/') . '/';
			return '/' . trim(preg_replace($base, '', $uri), '/') ?: '/';
		}
		return '/';
	}

	/**
	 * Normalizes the data from the `$_FILES` superglobal.
	 *
	 * @param array $data Data as formatted in the `$_FILES` superglobal.
	 * @return array Normalized data.
	 */
	protected function _parseFiles($data) {
		$result = [];

		$normalize = function($key, $value) use ($result, &$normalize){
			foreach ($value as $param => $content) {
				foreach ($content as $num => $val) {
					if (is_numeric($num)) {
						$result[$key][$num][$param] = $val;
						continue;
					}
					if (is_array($val)) {
						foreach ($val as $next => $one) {
							$result[$key][$num][$next][$param] = $one;
						}
						continue;
					}
					$result[$key][$num][$param] = $val;
				}
			}
			return $result;
		};
		foreach ($data as $key => $value) {
			if (isset($value['name'])) {
				if (is_string($value['name'])) {
					$result[$key] = $value;
					continue;
				}
				if (is_array($value['name'])) {
					$result += $normalize($key, $value);
				}
			}
		}
		return $result;
	}
}